Kaspar Hauser by Werner Herzog (1974)

What is Enlightenment?    (1784)

Think for ourselves

Think from the standpoint of everyone else

Think always consistently

 understanding+ judgment= maxim of reason

The Parallax View of Enlightenment 
Critique versus Reflection:
Diego Velázquez’ Les Meninas (1656) and Rene Magrittes The Human Condition (1933)
painting as window and not as mirror,  thought is not mere representation 

Dreams of a


Formerly, I viewed human common sense

only from the standpoint of my own; now I put myself into the position

of another’s reason outside of myself, and observe my judgments,

together with their most secret causes, from the point of view

of others. It is true that the comparison of both observations results

in pronounced parallax, but it is the only means of preventing the

optical delusion, and of putting the concept of the power of knowledge

in human nature into its true place.”

Enlightenment not only as an image of Light but of speech and discourse: (selections from Kant’s What is Enlightenment?) 

Enlightenment is mankind’s exit from self-incurred immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to make use of one’s own understanding without the guidance of another. 

I have a book that has understanding for me, a pastor who has a conscience

for me, a doctor who judges my diet for me, and so forth, surely I do not

need to trouble myself. I have no need to think, if only I can pay; others

will take over the tedious business for me. Those guardians, who have graciously taken up the oversight of mankind, take care that the far greater

part of mankind (including the entire fairer sex) regard the step to maturity

as not only difficult but also very dangerous .

Oedipus and the Sphinx, Gustave Moreau , 1864 

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